Indications and Usage
ZOKINVY is indicated in patients 12 months of age and older with a body surface area of 0.39 m2 and above:
- To reduce risk of mortality in Hutchinson-Gilford Progeria Syndrome
- For treatment of processing-deficient Progeroid Laminopathies with either:
- Heterozygous LMNA mutation with progerin-like protein accumulation
- Homozygous or compound heterozygous ZMPSTE24 mutations
Limitations of Use
- Not indicated for other Progeroid Syndromes or processing-proficient Progeroid Laminopathies. Based upon its mechanism of action, ZOKINVY would not be expected to be effective in these populations.
- Strong or moderate CYP3A inhibitors or inducers
- Lovastatin, simvastatin, and atorvastatin
Important Safety Information
- The most common adverse reactions are vomiting (90%), diarrhea (81%), infection (78%), nausea (56%), decreased appetite (53%), fatigue (51%), upper respiratory tract infection (51%), abdominal pain (48%), musculoskeletal pain (48%), electrolyte abnormalities (43%), headache (37%), decreased weight (37%), increased aspartate aminotransferase (35%), myelosuppression (35%), cough (33%), decreased blood bicarbonate (33%), hypertension (29%), and increased alanine aminotransferase (27%).
Gastrointestinal Adverse Reactions
- Gastrointestinal adverse reactions were the most frequently reported adverse reactions. Of the 57 patients (90%) that experienced vomiting, 30 (53%) patients had mild vomiting, 26 (46%) patients had moderate vomiting, and 1 (2%) patient had severe vomiting.
- Of the 35 patients (56%) that experienced nausea, 34 (97%) patients had mild nausea and 1 (3%) patient had moderate nausea.
- Of the 51 patients (81%) that experienced diarrhea, the majority of patients (92%) experienced mild or moderate diarrhea; 38 (75%) patients reported mild diarrhea and 9 (18%) patients reported moderate diarrhea. Four (8%) patients reported severe diarrhea.
- Loss of fluids and dehydration can be severe, leading to hospitalization. As a result, patients should receive therapy for diarrhea at the earliest signs in order to avoid possible severe complications.
Alanine Aminotransferase and Aspartate Aminotransferase Elevations
- Increased alanine aminotransferase was commonly reported (17 [27%] patients). Of the 17 patients with increased alanine aminotransferase, 14 (82%) patients had mild increases, 1 (6%) patient had moderate increases, and 2 (12%) patients had severe increases.
- Increased aspartate aminotransferase was also commonly reported (22 [35%] patients). Of the 22 patients with increased aspartate aminotransferase, 21 (95%) patients had mild increases and 1 (5%) patient had a severe increase.
- Increases in blood pressure have been documented in patients treated with ZOKINVY. At baseline 22 (35%) patients had either a systolic blood pressure or a diastolic blood pressure or both above the 95th percentile. Over the course of the trials, 18 (29%) patients had hypertension based on systolic blood pressure or diastolic blood pressure measurements above the 95th percentile on 3 or more occasions. Five (8%) patients who were normotensive at baseline had either systolic blood pressure or diastolic blood pressure above the 95th percentile at the end of treatment.
Some patients treated with ZOKINVY developed laboratory abnormalities. These included:
- Electrolyte abnormalities (43%), such as hyperkalemia, hypokalemia, hyponatremia, or hypercalcemia
- Myelosuppression (35%), such as reductions in absolute neutrophil count, white blood cell counts, lymphopenia, hemoglobin, or hematocrit
- Increased liver enzymes, such as aspartate aminotransferase (35%), or alanine aminotransferase (27%)
These laboratory abnormalities often improved while continuing ZOKINVY, but it is not possible to exclude ZOKINVY as a cause of the abnormalities. Periodically monitor electrolytes, complete blood counts, and liver enzymes, and manage abnormalities accordingly.
- Lonafarnib caused nephrotoxicity in rats at plasma drug exposures approximately equal to that achieved with the human dose. Monitor renal function at regular intervals during ZOKINVY therapy.
- Lonafarnib caused rod-dependent, low-light vision decline in monkeys at plasma drug exposures similar to that achieved with the human dose. Perform ophthalmological evaluation at regular intervals and at the onset of any new visual changes during ZOKINVY therapy.
- Lonafarnib caused impaired fertility in female rats at 1.2 times the human dose based on plasma drug exposure.
- Lonafarnib caused impaired fertility and testicular toxicity in male rats at 1.5 times the human dose based on plasma drug exposure, and toxicity in the male reproductive tract in monkeys at doses lower than the human dose based on plasma drug exposure.